Music by Pyotr Tchaikovsky
Libretto by Vladimir Begichev and Vasily Geltzer
Choreography by Marius Petipa and Lev Ivanov (1895)
revised choreography and stage direction: Konstantin Sergeyev (1950)
Set design by Igor Ivanov
Costume design by Galina Solovyova
World premiere: 20 February 1877, Bolshoi Theatre, Moscow (choreography by Julius Reisinger)
Premiere in St Petersburg: 15 January 1895, Mariinsky Theatre (choreography by Lev Ivanov and Marius Petipa)
Premiere of Konstantin Sergeyevґs version: 8 March 1950, Kirov Theatre of Opera and Ballet (Mariinsky), Leningrad
The performance has two intervals
It is difficult to understand these days how it could have happened that the first show of the “Lake” in 1877, in Moscow’s Bolshoi, was a flop, and that it took many years for the ballet to achieve its worldwide cult status. The composer, Pyotr Ilych Tchaikovsky, never lived to see the ultimate success of his creation.
The story begins in 1875, when Bolshoi commissions a ballet score from the young but already famous composer. It was not yet customary practice –despite Tchaikovsky fame and previous successes, which included four symphonies, the now famous Piano Concerto and “Eugene Onegin” opera, the Imperial Theatres of the time would normally employ the composers on Imperial payroll, such as Cesare Pugni, Ludwig Minkus, and Riccardo Drigo. Keeping that in mind, Tchaikovsky did not embark on the course of a revolution in the Russian ballet, and studied the classic ballet scores assiduously, planning to produce a score that would be in tune with the established tradition but at the same time would sound new and interesting. The task of composition occupied him from May 1875 to April 1876. The story was a knightly fairy tale, and historians still debate the literary origins –some opt for Heine, some for Musaeus, a German fairy-tale writer, some for Russian folklore fairy tales, some even for Pushkin.
The first show took place on February 20, 1877, and was a flop. The critics reviled the chief choreographer, Wentsel Reisinger, and were short on praise for Polina (Pelageya) Karpakova, the first interpreter of the main female part. The failure of the first show was detrimental for the immediate reputation of the ballet itself, and for quite some time nobody dared to stage it again.
The situation changed after Tchaikovsky’s death. In 1893, Mariinka decided to revive the “Swan Lake”. A new version of the libretto and the music was to be produced by Modest Tchaikovsky, the composer’s brother, Ivan Vsevolzhsky, the director of the Imperial Theatres himself, and by Riccardo Drigo. The latter used the original music as a source material for a completely new score. The choreography was supervised by Marius Petipa and his pupil Lev Ivanov. The tradition claims that while Petipa was the father of the unique choreography of the new ballet, its truly Russian singing character is there thanks to Ivanov. The lake and swan scenes, famous for their perfection, are undoubtedly his alone. It was Ivanov who came up with the idea of enchanted ladies with their criss-crossed arms and heads tilted to one side, which every spectator immediately recognized for birds that sit with their wings folded. The very magical world of the swan lake was created by Ivanov. Petipa’s are the scenes of courtly dances and festivities and their intricate lace of waltzes and various dances – Spanish, Hungarian, Polish. Petipa also created an antipode for Ivanov’s White Queen of Swans –its black twin Odile, and its beautiful black pas-de-deux of the second act.
It was this particular stage version that came to be admired as the pinnacle of Russian ballet. This production, as none other, was the perfect setting for many famous dancers to showcase their art. The Swan Lake is a unique and perfect creation, and despite the changing musical and dancing fashions, the performance of Odette and Odile parts is still considered a touchstone for the mettle of any serious dancer. The White Swan is truly a symbol of Russian Ballet, of its beauty and magnificence.
Prince Siegfried and his friends are celebrating his coming-of-age. The Queen gives him a crossbow and reminds him that the time has come to consider marriage. At the ball tomorrow he must choose a bride. Night falls. The guests depart. Siegfried is tormented by forebodings that are unclear. Seeing a flock of white swans in the sky the Prince sets out for the lake.
A lake in a forest glade. On coming ashore the swans are transformed into girls and Siegfried drops his crossbow, staggered by the beauty of the Swan Queen. Odette tells him that the swan-maidens are under the power of the evil sorcerer von Rothbart and only the power of wholehearted love can undo the magic spell. Siegfried swears eternal love to Odette.
A ball at the castle. One after another, beauties from different countries appear before the Prince, but not one of them can grasp his attention. Siegfried’s heart belongs to Odette. The sounds of a fanfare announce the arrival of more guests. Disguised as a noble knight, von Rothbart enters, and with him is his daughter Odile. Siegfried is struck dumb – this beautiful maiden is exactly like Odette! Odile gives the Prince no time to come to his senses, she lures and bewitches him, and the Prince is so attracted that he declares his love for her. Von Rothbart is triumphant. Understanding the full horror of the deception of which he has been the victim, Siegfried rushes to the lake and to Odette.
Night. The shore of the lake. Odette is telling her friends about von Rothbart’s villainy and Siegfried’s betrayal. The Prince appears and begs her forgiveness. Black swans sent by von Rothbart attempt to separate the lovers, but Siegfried defeats the sorcerer. The powers of evil are at an end and the rays of the rising sun bring life, love and happiness...
Casts & Credits
Pyotr Tchaikovsky "Swan Lake" fantasy ballet in three acts (four scenes) at Mariinsky Theater on other dates (11 events at Saint Petersburg)
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