The village originated in 1559. There are several versions of the origin of its name. The most common version says that the village got its name after the first owner - Nogai Murza Divey, the son of Mokshev Butakov. Later, at the end of the 17th century, most of the descendants of Divey (Diveevs) accepted Orthodoxy. Princes Diveevs owned the Prince Ivanov (now Maevka), which is 3 km from Diveev.
In the second half of the 18th century a small wooden church was built in Diveevo in honor of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker and Archdeacon Stefan. The location of the village of Diveev at the intersection of pilgrimage roads made it possible for travelers traveling to the Sarov monastery to find shelter and rest in the church. Under the shelter for rest the temple has accepted and stranger Agathy Semyonovna Melgunovu who in 1767 has started to build in Diveevo a stone temple in honor of the Kazan icon of the Mother of God (consecrated in 1772). After the consecration of all three chapels of the church, Agafia decided to organize a community. In 1788, she received a gift from the landowner Zhdanova 1300 square meters. sagen land next to the temple, where he built three cells with outbuildings. All they needed for life, including food, they were brought from the Sarov monastery. Shortly before his death, Alexandra was visited by the Sarov elders and the Monk Seraphim of Sarov, whom she asked to take care of the community.