State Museum of Lev Tolstoy
The State Museum of Lev Tolstoy – one of the oldest literary museums in Russia. Idea of its creation arose in those days, when Russian society was shocked by the departure of the grand old man of Yasnaya Polyana and his death, November 7, 1910 at the station Astapovo. Tragic events have increased interest to the personality of writer and his literary heritage. Contemporaries Tolstoy tried to collect and preserve everything that was related to his memory. Needed was center that combines common work. Such centre became the Museum of Tolstoy. It was founded on a voluntary basis, its collection – the manuscript of the writer, his portraits, photographs, personal items, books, paintings, illustration – amounted gifts of friends and admirers of Tolstoy.
December 28 (old style), 1911, a year after his death, was officially opened Tolstoy Museum on Povarskaya, 18. It become an event in the history of Russian culture. Curator of the museum became P. Biryukov, and after his departure for Switzerland – V. Bulgakov.
After 1917 there was a question about the future of the museum. October 12, 1918 issued by the People's Commissariat safe conduct home of Lev Tolstoy in Khamovniki and Literary Museum (Povarskaya, 18). This was protected the spiritual and material heritage of Tolstoy.
V. Bulgakov with A. Tolstoy and artist N. Bartram, founder of the Museum of toys, and with the support of Bonch – Bruevich literally conquered from numerous applicants mansion on Prechistenka, 11. It was built in 1817 – 1822 by the famous Russian architect Athanasios G. Grigoriev (pupil of Kvarengi). "Thin technique of Grigoriev works and ability to turn up a good proportion of the architect put it among the best of our masters" – Grigoriev wrote in 1911 in the magazine "Old Years".
March 11, 1920 Housing – land department of the Moscow Soviet of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies issued to Tolstoy Museum a warrant for possession alone on Prechistenka, 11 (1920 – th – Kropotkin, 1995 – th – again Prechistenka)
April 5, 1920, Lenin signed a decree on the nationalization of the House of Lev Tolstoy in Moscow. Literary Museum on Prechistenka and Museum – Estate "Hamovniki" were combined into one museum, which from 1939 became known as the State Museum of Lev Tolstoy.
November 20, 1920, in the tenth anniversary of the death of Tolstoy Museum on Prechistenka opened his doors. Solemn ceremony of transfer of the Tolstoy Museum to the Society Statement implemented S. Tolstoy, the writer's son.
The main literary exposition telling about the life and work of Lev Tolstoy, located in the building (the former Lopukhins – Stanitskoy), built in 1817 by the famous architect A. Grigoriev. The building is of wood, plastered, is an architectural monument of the first quarter of the nineteenth century and is a unique example of post – construction Moscow: the enfilade of parade halls with a lampshade painting, white columns and bas – reliefs on the facade. The house, an outbuilding and a small yard – a sample of urban manor of noble family.
For more than 100 – year history of the museum changed several stationary exposition: "Lev Tolstoy – the whole world," "His soul came upon all and the whole," "L. Tolstoy and his era."
Each of the exhibits gave an idea of the wealth funds HMT: from the first daguerreotypes, children's sketches of works of Tolstoy, and the first editions and the first of illustrations to his works to monumental works of the great painters and sculptors of modern editions of the works of Tolstoy, artware, associated with the name of Tolstoy and his entourage.